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What entity manages .com, .net, .gov, .us, .cn domains?
submitted by Rubick555 to AskComputerScience [link] [comments]
For the longest time I still have not a clue how this works. I am not sure if this is the right subreddit or something like networking
This is all I understand so far about the web (or internet?), computers, and electronics in general (its super long just skip to bold part if you need to)
Okay, but who manages the .info, .com, .net, .cn, .rs, and .gov top level domains?
- Computers linked to network with standard protocols, such as HTTP/ HTTPS over the world wide consortium standards, forming conglomerate of computers linked together. ISP's take information from said networks and transfer data to other ISP's via nodes, through hardwire connections and transatlantic cable.
- IP addresses identify your local network through the ISP. Subnet mask, gateways, etc and traffic can be redirected via VPN. Also, on local side, you have the PC=>Router (optional) => Modem => ISP, where the router helps divide the modem so multiple PC's can connect to one line. Also WiFi operates by a specific hardware device (wifi dongle, router) and transfers information via electromagnetic waves. Same with cellphones (Via cellphone towers). Also satellites help direct cellular traffic through direct line of sight connections from user=>satellite=>user.
- URL's utilize world wide consortium stsandards, using www. as the default subdomain, the web address, and the end? domain (like .com)
- Domains are rented out through 3rd parties such as godaddy, and are never physically owned. Subdomains are like m.reddit.com (for mobile use) or MyWebsite.blogspot.com
- Search engines like google uses properitary algorithms /datastacks/ web crawlers to build a huge database of all existing URL's and rates them through its servers (SEO)
- Servers are just high powered PC's generally running Linux and processes incoming data / sends out packets of data, generally in fancy server rooms
- DDoS is denial of service through botnet attacks via malware infections of computers, utilizing other people's computer resources (there's more than one way of doing this). Also, ports get overridden with lots of useless requests, denying service to legit people who want to use said site hosted on said server
- Throttling occurs due to ISP's limiting data pipeline through its end, not sure what goes on here though
- Deep web (or dark web?) is essentially hosting a bunch of private URLs, not visible publicly and accessed through specific private search engines.
- Torrents are accessed via peer 2 peer (Seeding and leeching) and managed client-side with utorrent, rutorrent, etc which manages traffic for the requests for .torrent downloads, and public torrent links are through sites like pirate bay, kickass torrents, etc
- Programming languages (Fortran, C++, Java) were generally formed originally from assembly code and binary in the form of different modules. People had different opinions of how data and protocols were made, so hence different languages
- Virtual machines, its a high powered PC generally that divides its resources to host several virtual PC's. Lots of variations of how datastacks are managed
- Personal computers work via motherboard, ram sticks, GPU (like nvidia GTX Titan or intel graphics 4000), Cores / hyperthreading (like corei7 from intel), monitors, etc. Say you run a PC without internet and run a game like witcher 3. You run an executable file, which is written by C++. GPU renders data supplied by executable, (e.g. render this room given this data under this game engine), ram (random access memory) is used as all the unprocessed data needs to sit somewhere?, various caches (L3) for processing common data quickly, core (i7) for processing data as a whole, motherboard and OS mediates all data being transferred.
- Github is used for subversion control, and its now cloud based too (although it was originally local / lan only). Github is done via pulls , requests, call, etc. to monitor versions. You can technically emulate this on paper using sticky notes, but its not efficient
- Hardware electronic wise, voltage and current is analgous to a water pipeline, where VOLUME WATER FLOW = CIRCUMFERENCE * VELOCITY WATER. In this case, POWER = VOLTAGE * CURRENT. Kerchoff's law, parallel series circuits, PCIBs, quantum theory, transistors (3 prongs), OR NAND NOT gates, arrays, resistors, potentiometers, timers, arduino, bread boards, soldering, relays, switches, that kind of thing (I'm not an EE). Anyways, hardware generally requires a specific amount of voltage and current for things to run on the computer
- Operating Systems are linux, windows, macs, etc, and runs through a succession of modules created by assembly code and programming based languages such as C++.
- DBMS utilizes crud (create read update delete). MySQL works. Can be emulated on a piece of paper, technically
- XML (eXtensible markup language) just is used to communicate between different languages
- API (application programming interface) is basically a user manual of all the functions publicly available to pull from a program, locally or on a server. E.G. imgur provides a bunch of API's, I can use its resources because I know said API, and make a program out of it. UPS has a bunch of available API, so I can pull that shit and make a ecommerce shipping module or something.
- RAID (RAID 1-5) is just like how data is split into different hard drives. E.G. I have a file. File is split 3 ways into 3 different raid drives and pulled all at once when I request for it, its done this way because file transfers are faster when split into multiple data pipelines.)
- Ads make the web profitable. Lots of big name companies make lots of $ selling services and goods at high margins, goes back and dumps money in marketing. Facebook CPC, youtube Ads, youtube videos with ads built into the video (techquickie), social media (instagram, kik, w/e), free game riddled with sidebar ads, banner ads, adblock letting forbe's ads through. Or 4% amazon commission based on referrals. Or Hulu plus style ads, pay to get rid of ads / pay for full service.
- web services and goods. microsoft office, reddit gold, renting a server, anything on amazon, that kind of thing. Money.
- bitcoin is cryptography based, and can be mined (but not profitable due to energy and hardware limitations for the average person). Bitcoin is generated through computers working out some sort of very encrpyted password node. Bitcoins stored on a server side application (Accessed via website), or through just a web URL, or a client side application (on your phone, desktop program). Bitcoin bought through local transactions, link credentials and bank account, also not easily traceable? (debatable here)
- Blackhat Hacking (what people think of generally, not DIY hardware hacks, writing a program, or modifying an existing code) is done on unsecured websites. Usually said website is running some backend application like wordpress, shopify, drupal, modules commerce. Changes are made in the core code over time, and those changes sometimes lead to vulnerabilities that people aren't aware. Hackers send requests (MySQL injection is one of these?) to find more about how the server side application works, and looks for some way to override and obtain admin credentials by having server side reveal this information. White hat is the opposite. Red hat is for linux
- Virus, worms, trojans. Usually runs on an attached .exe file or application, but has been known to somehow work with images too. Also worked with emails (worms) in the past. This is mostly magic to me too, I just know how to prevent it. PUP is just potentially unwanted programs (aka bloatware) that comes preinstalled from HP / ASUS/ ACER, etc, or comes along for the ride when you download a program off Cnet.
- Data selling. Especially mobile apps (I mean you have to give them permission on everything), they take data, sell to data brokers, which businesses buy to make marketing decisions. Same with lots of things that don't seem to generate money, e.g. chrome plugins, you are the money generator for them via data. Insert google overlords and big 5 internet companies giving data to government via PRISM/snowden (didn't something like this go into effect in 2015?) . Also insert malicious data theft and brokers (social engineering, telemarketers trying to get your credit card, entering information on non HTTPS secured sites).
- Monitors, eh whatever. IPS, TN, PWM flickering, Polarization, viewing angles, LCD , Cathode Ray Tubes.
- VoIP is just a specific protocol (like https) for how phone calls transferred over web, and maintain quality of said audio
- Image compression is done via bit map rasterization. DNG files or propietary raw formats are utilized in native applications like adobe photoshop. .GIFS are simply image slideshows, actually all videos are image slideshows. Vectorization is mostly talked about when using illustrator or cad based programs (Solidworks, CATIA, AutoCAD)
- Programs can be bypassed (e.g. Sony Vegas Pro) by core modification of its files (you'd need to breach password credentials though?) and be made into a "crack file" . A keygen treats the program normally, but just bypasses security checks externally (e.g. preventing company server from doing checks by blocking certain URLs, and a keygen from Xforce that is made by finding security criteria for successful serial# installs)
- Rooting your phone is like getting full super user access on linux, but also comes at a price leaving you vulnerable to security breaches
- Domain name service managers like namecheap just helps you manage how you rent your domain.
- FTP is file transfer protocol to transfer files from one computer to another. SFTP is just secured FTP, whatever that means. SSH is shell access, e.g. almost like your sitting on that computer over on the other side of the world as opposed to just accessing files only.
- Email servers are done by IMAP, POP3, email is transferred purely text based (attached files go through a different channel) to be sent from one email to another via email. POP3 is stored more localish side, IMAP is more server based (its slower, but easily accessible anywhere)
- Windows API, windows registry, Linux commands are still magic to me. Sudo super user something.
There's obviously some domains that are specific to countries, and are most likely managed by that countries' government entity. E.G (.us for usa? .ws for russia, .cn for china) but aren't nearly as popular as the .net and .com domains.
.Org and .gov are US? government regulated top level domains to my knowledge, where .org is mostly nonprofit. U.S.A uses .gov domains for its government organizations
So I understand that some countries government manages that domain. But what about public top level domains, like .com, .info, .net, .ca?
Who manages the database for those? Who gives authority to godaddy for those domains for rent? Who mediates copyright conflicts for those domains? (E.G. say my name is Mike Cro Soft, and I wanted to rent a domain called mikecrosoft, but get DMCA'd / copyrighted by microsoft.com)
Like, what are the big organizations mediating internet protocols and legislation on a global scale?
Who or what has access to the biggest picture of the web, and its workings and backend?
sorry for the long wall of text, I've been missing some vital information on how the web? (or is it internet?) works
disclaimer: I don't take CS classes and did not major in computer science. So I might be really off in what i understand about the internet as a whole. Most of this is just what I learned from browsing reddit and youtube
Apologies in advance if i butchered a bunch of terms and how things work. I just wrote things as they randomly came to me
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